The JobBank Descriptive Guide for the
The Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) was designed to elicit information about individual differences in children through the identification of psychological type. It seeks to provide an interpretation of type as it relates to how an individual child best perceives and processes information and how that child prefers to interact socially and behaviorally with others.
The MMTIC is a self-report instrument in which the child is asked to choose his or her preferred response from two choices, neither of which is right or wrong.
Each child is unique and develops and learns best in an environment where his or her individual differences are understood and accommodated. Among the most important differences are those associated with psychological type, i.e., how children absorb information about their environment and how they then order and make decisions about that information. Psychological Type theory seeks to describe how individuals perceive and make judgments about their perceptions. The contribution of type theory to our understanding of individual behavior has helped bring order and predictability to situations in life that were previously characterized by confusion, misunderstanding, and pain.Parents and teachers are the people who have the greatest influence on children, and it is important that the differences in psychological type in children be recognized both at home and at school. Type differences appear to have a profound effect on early learning and indeed appear to have an impact on almost every area of life. Therefore, children’s learning and development will be enhanced when those involved in their nurture are also aware of their own type and the effect that this may have on parenting and teaching styles. Further, they must always stay sensitive to the significant differences in type among individual children.
Information about psychological type in children can:
Understanding Psychological Type
Early in the twentieth century, the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung developed the concept of psychological type to explain natural differences in human behavior. Isabel Myers states that “the essence of the theory is that much seemingly random variation in human behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to certain basic differences in the way people prefer to use their perception and judgment” (Myers & McCaulley, 1985, p.l). The patterns identified by Jung describe how people perceive information and how they reach decisions about it. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, based on Jung’s theory, measures preferences on the following four bipolar dimensions: (a) Extraversion/Introversion, (b) Sensing/Intuition, (c) Thinking/Feeling, and (d) Judging/Perceiving. The MMTIC employs the same bipolar dimensions. A description of the four dimensions and eight preferences follows. Additional descriptors are provided in Table 1.
Definitions of the Preferences
Where We Focus Our Attention
This dimension assesses whether individuals are oriented to the outer or inner world. The preferences are:
How We Perceive or Take In Information
People receive information through two possible functions:
How We Make Judgments or Decisions About Information
Once information is perceived, some kind of decision must be made about it. People can make decisions using one of two functions:
Two Ways of Dealing with the Outer World
When dealing with the outer world, an individual may rely upon a judging process (T or F) or upon a perceiving process (S or N). The process primarily used in dealing with the outer world is one of these two attitudes:
Dominant and Auxiliary
Of the four functions, S, N, T, and F. one leads and is called the dominant. This function is the most preferred and the first to develop. The function that balances the dominant is called the auxiliary. If the dominant is a perceiving function (S or N), the auxiliary will be a judging function (T or F), and vice versa. For example, if an individual’s dominant function is Sensing, then the auxiliary function will be either Thinking or Feeling. This provides a balance between taking in information and making decisions about that information.